The manufacturing of activated carbon involves two main sites: the carbonization of the carbonaceous raw material at temperatures below 800o C in the absence of oxygen and the activation of the carbonized product. Simple cooking or carbonization does not give rise to products that have high adsorption capacity because of their less developed pore structure and low surface area. The pore structure is enhanced during the activation process. Activation is an oxidation reaction at elevated temperatures where the oxidizing agent is usually steam & carbon dioxide & only sometimes air.
Physical Activation (Steam)
This is generally carried out at temperatures between 800 - 1000o C in the presence of suitable oxidizing agents such as steam, carbon dioxide, air, or any mixture of these gases. The heating is carried out by the combustion of a coke oven or natural gases, when available because it is the most economical as both the heat required and the activation agent are supplied simultaneously. However, indirectly fired activators, which could be rotary kilns or multiple hearth furnaces, extra steam is added to moderate the temperature. In actual industrial processes, the activating agent used is generally flue gas to which a certain amount of steam is added so that a combined activation with steam & carbon dioxide can occur:
C + O2 ------------> CO2 + 92.4 KCAL
C + O2 ------------> 2CO + 53.96 KCAL
A system of total quality management is observed. Selective Purchasing of raw materials and quality monitoring is done from the origin to achieve the product of high international standards. Ruthless controls at the intake are followed by visual/manual and mechanized removal of dust, iron, and any foreign matter to ensure perfect inputs are most compatible with the system. Although the plant and processes are indigenous, critical equipment like gas analyzers are of U.S. origin and material handling is totally automatic. Our dedicated management faculty members comprise of engineering graduates in chemical & mechanical fields. This is supplemented with doctorates from the Indian Institute of Technology, acting as consultants, and supervising research projects undertaken by the company.